In Judith Solomon & Carol George (Eds. The organized categories of infant, child, and adult attachment: Flexible vs. inflexible attention under attachment-related stress, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48(4), 1055-1096, p.1093. John Bowlby originally proposed the concept of the 'attachment behavioral system', an orientation and set of dispositions which evolved because it provided protection from predation and other risks to survival. Research has found different AAI response patterns to be associated with different types of parental behavior. Thoroughly accessible yet academically rigorous, and written by a leading figure in the field, John Bowlby and Attachment Theory is still the perfect introduction to attachment for students of psychology, psychiatry, counselling, social work and nursing. Development and Psychopathology, Special Section on Frightened/frightening Behavior, 18, 309-343. "[47], In later work, Main, DeMoss and Hesse[48] reviewed the AAI transcripts of parents of children classified disorganized in their attachment behavior, and found that these parents exhibited characteristic 'slips' or 'lapses' in their discourse when discussing potentially traumatic experiences of loss or abuse. Version 7.2. Unresolved/disorganized adult responses have been found associated with disorganized infant behavior towards the speaker. http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/pdf/Mary_Main_honorary_degree.pdf, Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mary_Main&oldid=988433437, University of California, Berkeley College of Letters and Science faculty, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-LCCN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [14] For example, this classification in infancy has been found associated with school-age externalising problem behavior,[15] indices of dissociation in adolescence[16] and development of post-traumatic stress symptoms following trauma exposure. Attachment security and disorganization in maltreating and high risk families: A series of meta-analyses, Development and Psychopathology, 22, 87–108. The emergence of the disorganized/disoriented (D) attachment classification, 1979-1982, History of Psychology 18(1): 32–46. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds. [17] Behaviors associated with disorganization have been found to undergo transformation from the age of 2 and typically develop into various forms of well-organised controlling behavior toward the parent. Main, M., & Solomon, J. For example, secure-autonomous parents have been found to be more responsive to their infants than parents with a dismissing or preoccupied attachment state of mind. ), Adult attachment scoring and classification system. In M.T. [12], Like the Ainsworth classifications, 'disorganized/disoriented attachment' with one caregiver little predicts the classification with another caregiver. Mary Main is a professor at the University of California at Berkeley. [54] Unresolved responses to the AAI have been found associated with frightening, frightened or dissociative parental behaviour[55] but it has also been found that only a small part of the association between unresolved states of mind and disorganized infant attachment can be explained by the mediation of anomalous parental behavior, indicating that other as yet unknown factors must also be involved. Type C attachments were insecure and resistant. This is an "ultimate" account made sheerly at the level of mechanism, and it is essentially identical to Bowlby's. Main, M., & Hesse, E. (1990). Hazen, N., Sydnye, D.A., Christopher, C., Umemura, T., & Jacobvitz, D. (2015). (2008). A collaborator of Bowlby's, Mary Ainsworth, developed a standardised laboratory observation procedure named the 'Strange Situation' in which an infant would undergo two brief separations and reunions from their caregiver as well as contact with a stranger. Main, M., & Solomon, J. Advancing our understanding of a significant subgroup of infants and children with attachment-related difficulties, the volume represents an important contribution to the empirical attachment literature. Be the first to ask a question about Attachment Disorganization. Attachment theory and research: Overview with suggested applications to child custody, Family Court Review, 49(3), 426–463. Associations among attachment classifications of mothers, fathers and their infants, Child Development, 67, 541-555. Main, M. (1979). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Main, M. (2000). MacDonald, H.Z., Beeghly, M., Grant-Knight, W., Augustyn, M., Woods, R.W., Cabral, H., Rose-Jacobs, R., Saxe, G.N., & Frank, D.A. In P. Marris, J. Stevenson-Hinde & C. Parkes (Eds. Fonagy and Forward II. Main, M. (1991). [34] An additional issue for attempts at home screening of disorganized attachment is Main's finding that some infants classified as insecure-avoidant in the strange situation may show disorganized-type behaviors at home. 209), 66-104. The Multiple Dimensions of the Self 6. The AAI has been applied in both research and clinically. Attachment theory and research: Overview, with suggested applications to child custody. [40] Interviews categorised as secure-autonomous are characterised by their coherent and collaborative nature. (1999). The system has three components in early childhood: the monitoring and maintaining of proximity to an attachment figure or figures, flight to these individuals as a haven of safety in times of alarm, and use of these individuals as a secure base for exploration. [57] The evidence on the longitudinal stability of attachment security is therefore currently inconclusive. Unresolved/disorganized/disoriented state of mind with respect to experiences of loss. Version 7.2. However, Main and Hesse have stated that they intended their emphasis on frightening or frightened caregiver behavior as "one highly specific and sufficient, but not necessary, pathway to D attachment status. ADULT ATTACHMENT INTERVIEW PROTOCOL George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1985). ), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp.666-697). Coming to Los Angeles: Dr. Dan Siegel with Drs. The emergence of the disorganized/disoriented (D) attachment classification, 1979-1982, History of Psychology, 18(1): 32–46. Main, M., Goldwyn, R., & Hesse, E. (2003). https://www.verywellmind.com/mary-ainsworth-biography-2795501 Since 1986, when disorganized attachment was first defined by Mary Main and Judith Solomon, a great deal of interest has been shown in this addition to the standard Ainsworth classification system. (2008). The ultimate causation of some infant attachment phenomena. Since 1986, when disorganized attachment was first defined by Mary Main and Judith Solomon, a great deal of interest has been shown in this addition to the standard Ainsworth classification system. ), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention (pp. ), The effects of the infant on its caregiver (pp. From its origins in the 1950s with the work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, Attachment Theory has expanded over the ensuing half century to become a central psychobiological paradigm in developmental and clinical psychology. He similarly presents the work of three major pioneers of attachment theory–John Bolby, Mary Ainsworth and Mary Main. Unpublished manuscript, University of California at Berkeley. [56] Some longitudinal studies have also found associations between attachment security in infancy, as assessed in the Strange Situation, and in young adulthood, as assessed by the AAI. This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 03:53. The caregiving system: A behavioral systems approach to parenting. Predictability of attachment behavior and representational processes at 1, 6, and 18 years of age: The Berkeley Longitudinal Study. [50], A 'Cannot Classify' category has also been delineated by Hesse and Main which is used to describe interviews in which no single predominant attachment state of mind can be identified. 245–304). In M. Main, R. Goldwyn & E. Hesse (Eds. (2006). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 640–643. A prospective longitudinal study of attachment disorganization/disorientation, Child Development, 69(4), 1107–1128; Ogawa, J. R., Sroufe, L. A., Weinfield, N. S., Carlson, E. A., & Egeland, B. The organized categories of infant, child, and adult attachment: Flexible vs. inflexible attention under attachment-related stress, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48(4), 1055-1096, p.1094. In a letter to Behavioral and Brain Science, 1977, the ground in evolutionary theory upon which Main's later ideas emerged is already clear. Disorganization and disorientation in infant strange situation behavior: Phenotypic resemblance to dissociative states? We’d love your help. (1999). New books! [21], However, it is important to note that Main and Solomon did not intend to suggest that all of the behaviors used as indices of disorganization/disorientation – some kind of disruption at the level of the attachment system – necessarily mean the same thing in the same way for infant attachment or infant mental health. Main, M., Hesse, E., & Goldwyn, R. (2008). The interviewees may claim to have had positive attachment relationships and experiences but provide unconvincing or contradictory evidence to support this, or acknowledge negative experiences but insist these experiences have had little effect or only made them stronger. Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology, Development and Psychopathology, 11, 1–13. New York: Guilford Press. "[7] In her attention to attachment as an evolutionary phenomenon, from early in her career Main was already reflecting that a conflict might arise between an infant's experience of aversive parenting and the attachment injunction to seek protection from a caregiver: Peculiar maltreatment effects – that is, the irrational return of the abused to the abusing object – were first noted by Darwin (1972) in his voyage to the Galapagos; they were presented along with an explanation of the mechanism. To parents, 345-361 returned each time to the point on which he stood on a promontory, and,. Sonuga-Barke, E. ( 1990 ), 623-636 & Powell, B the other hand, it returned each tossed! And empirical studies that may affect children attachment has been applied to diagnosis, treatment, and sequelae, and... 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