We studied 24 the relationships of steel slag amendment with plant-soil … doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05538.x, Singh, B. K., Bardgett, R. D., Smith, P., and Reay, D. S. (2010). Slag fertilizers, in particular, iron/steel slag fertilizers are rich in iron. Comprehensive utilization of steel slag can lead to enormous economic and social benefits. Higher grain yields in response to silicate fertilization could be attributed to the fact that Si preferentially deposits in the epidermal cell wall and increases physical strength of leaves and leaf-sheaths and help plants to sustain yield by counteracting various biotic and abiotic stresses and increasing plant biomass (Luyckx et al., 2017). Black in color. There are only few reports concerning the effects of the slag fertilizer amendment on carbon sequestration in cropping systems. Some soil amendments also add nutrients to the soil, help retain moisture and help maintain the correct pH balance. Anti-skid for winter roads. 'centerOnScroll' : true, Application of PTC slag as acid soil amendment will reduce the demand of P fertilizer, and even in high dosage can meet the P demand of komatsuna plant. 29, 2759–2764. According to Nippon Slag Association’s statistics on the use of slag in 2012, the total consumption of blast furnace and steelmaking slags for fer-tilizer and soil amendment was 260 000 tons. 109. Biol. jQuery('.Citation27').fancybox({ The soil amendment is composed of the main material, amine treated lignite, bone meal, bran, soybean meal, and the other additives. Among fertilizers made from slag, the use of silicate fertilizer, particularly in rice cropping systems has been gaining awareness and demand (Meharg and Meharg, 2015). (2017). “For soil amendment, most cases are left to the industry itself to monitor where they put fly ash and how much they use of it,” said Stant. Bot. Impact Factor 4.235 | CiteScore 6.4More on impact ›, Role of Microbes in Climate Smart Agriculture (2017). The decrease in N2O emissions have been attributed to lower N availability and higher Fe availability with Si fertilization. Figure 1. 7 Figure 5: Comparison between the annual utilization as fertilizer and the total production amount for steelmaking slag 'hideOnOverlayClick': false, Identification and elucidation of functional roles of keystone soil microbes that sustain plant health and productivity under slag fertilization could provide a technological breakthrough for a sustainable use of slag in agricultural productivity. At the system level, soil microorganisms play an integral role in virtually all ecosystem processes. Steel slag (SS) is a fertilizer amendment with a high concentration of calcium oxide, and thus capable of raising substrate pH similar to dolomitic lime (DL). The recent advances in omic techniques, e.g., high-throughput sequencing, metatranscriptomic analysis, and DNA/RNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) will no doubt be imperative to uncover the hidden dimensions of slag-microbe interactions in ecosystem functioning. Waste Manag. Adv. Received: 03 December 2018; Accepted: 27 May 2019; Published: 18 June 2019. Bio-inoculation of bacteria possessing CA activity in slag fertilized agricultural systems could accelerate silicate weathering and enhance CO2 sequestration. production. In a recent study, Song et al. 44, No. slag can be considered a mineral amendment used to improve soil acidity, and also a source of calcium and magnesium. --> doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2008.04.014, Beerling, D. J., Leake, J. R., Long, S. P., Scholes, J. D., Ton, J., Nelson, P. N., et al. It is suggested that the effect of LD converter slag on the plant growth and chemical characteristics of acid soils be studied under field conditions. I recently asked the question, coal as soil amendment and people were very vehement about it being pure poison and me thinking it was just over composted organic material and had just heard if they had heard anything. Steelmaking slag for fertilizer usage. If the slag is not dangerous for the environment and public health, then the priority should be given to the use of recycled materials. The term “slag” is used in the specifications of slag silicate fertilizer and slag phosphate fertilizer in the Fertilizer Control Law. (2009b). Silicate fertilization in no-tillage rice farming for mitigation of methane emission and increasing rice productivity. Cumulative CH 4 emission was lower for the slag and slag + biochar amendments than the control in early paddy by-34.1%. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2015.07.001, Melton, E. D., Swanner, E. D., Behrens, S., Schmidt, C., and Kappler, A. Intensive rice cultivation to meet the growing food demand chronically depletes Si from soil, thus degrades soil quality and decreases the crop yield (Branca and Colla, 2012). 44, No. Agriculture significantly contributes to the emission of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), which are two of the most important greenhouse gases responsible for global warming (Das and Adhya, 2014). Another demerit of slag fertilizer is that it contains small proportions of N and K, and P (in some slag fertilizer), which are essential nutrients for plant growth. With few exceptions, the required metals are divalent cations, including Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+, and the most abundant cation source are silicate minerals. Silicon, the silver bullet for mitigating biotic and abiotic stress, and improving grain quality, in rice? The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01320/full#supplementary-material, Ali, M. A., Lee, C. H., Kim, S. Y., and Kim, P. J. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. For a better understanding of the long-term effects of the slag fertilizer amendment in agriculture, further research under diverse soil types and agronomic management practices need to be carried out. Noteworthy, the increased yield under slag fertilization is largely regulated by microbial decomposition of organic matter and nutrient mobilization. Steel slag can be considered a mineral amendment used to improve soil acidity, and also a source of calcium and magnesium. Steel slag can be considered a mineral amendment used to improve soil acidity, and also a source of calcium and magnesium. (2008). Moreover, silicate fertilizer amendment can increase root biomass and O2 transport from the plant to root by enlarging arenchyma gas channels (Liang et al., 2007), which in turn suppresses CH4 production and stimulates CH4 oxidation. (2012) reported that the silicate fertilization is not effective in reducing CH4 emissions in green manure amended paddy soils probably due to the enhanced decomposition of added organic matter by the silicate liming effect. With advances in omic techniques, soil microbial communities and community-level molecular characteristics have been exploited as early indicators of ecosystem processes for sustainable soil management and agricultural productivity (Shokralla et al., 2012). Elements 4, 333–337. Iron oxidation affects nitrous oxide emissions via donating electrons to denitrification in paddy soils. Moreover, the land filled with disposed slag has become an important source of pollution of air, water, and soil, which further adversely affects vegetation and human health (Branca and Colla, 2012). 8:1702. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01702, Detmann, K. C., Araujo, W. L., Martins, S. C. V., Sanglard, L. M. V. P., Reis Josimar, V., Detmann, E., et al. While in the past, steel-making processes were exclusively designed for the production of specific quality and quantities of iron and steel, one of today’s goals for steel making is to design and develop technologies to produce high-quality slag according to the market requirements. Chemical, mineralogical, and morphological properties of steel slag. Dan Gallagher October 12, 2018 at 1:07 pm. Geoderma 271, 173–180. This material has the potential to amend poor soils. SD wrote the manuscript. Ecol. Articles, University of Southampton, United Kingdom. The by-product was selected as an alternative to commercial Fe oxides, which can decrease plant uptake, but they are expensive if used as amendments of contaminated arable soils. and plants were conducted to measure vanadium toxicity in different vanadium soil treatments; freshly spiked, aged and blast furnace slag (800 mg V kg-1). The increase in grain yield, however, mostly depends on slag type, application rate, soil type, and agronomic management. Since the mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions in soil are still not clear, this perspective focuses on the synthesis of several possible mechanisms based on published research. Plants 6, 1–14. In Romania, according to official data are obtained annually approximately 75 000 t of steel slag. Impacts of Basic Slag, Aggregate Size and Groundwater Levels for the Amendment of Acid Sulfate Soils in Relation to the Production of Mustard in a Simulation Study Md. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Vol. 'title' : jQuery('#fancybox-wrap>div').html()+' ', Some studies suggest slag fertilizer decreases N2O emissions (Susilawati et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015), while other studies suggest slag fertilizer increases N2O emissions (Huang et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2012). Front. (2015) indicated that a 99% reduction in N2O emissions could be achieved in an intermittent irrigated rice paddy using silicate fertilizer at the rate of 8 Mg ha−1. (Luxembourg: International). Contain iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc. In recent years, extensive research has been conducted to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the contribution of microbial communities to ecosystem functioning under various agronomic management practices. In Figure 1, we show the proposed mechanism of slag-microbe interactions in soil. Microbial carbonic anhydrases in biomimetic carbon sequestration for mitigating global warming: prospects and perspectives. 'height' : 'auto', Thus, there is a high chance that the steelmaking slag could be utilized as a soil amendment. (2016). OUT OF PRODUCTION UNTIL THE FALL ITEM #04S05 DESCRIPTION:Nutrient-rich soil amendment that has excellent soil liming properties. Ecosyst. 'showCloseButton' : true, Geochem. NET WEIGHT 50 LBS **PICTURE MAY NOT BE ACTUAL REPRESENTATION! The extent of CH4 emissions reduction depended on the slag fertilizer type, rate of application, soil type, and agronomic practices (Supplementary Table S1). Understanding the effects of slag fertilizer on soil microbial communities and functions is essential to address some critical agro-environmental issues, such as whether the slag fertilizer amendment would be useful to increase crop productivity, reduce GHG emissions, increase soil carbon sequestration, and stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. 147, 422–428. Steel slag can be considered a mineral amendment used to improve soil acidity, and also a source of calcium and magnesium. The steel-making slag (SMS), a by-product of steel manufacturing process with an alkaline pH (11-12) and high amount of iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) oxides, was used to reduce arsenic (As) phytoextractability. Field soil (silty gravelly sand) contaminated with 1.5 mg kg-1 of Cd was 45 collected from Guizhou, China. A Comparison of Blast-Furnace Slag and Limestone as a Soil Amendment, Yolk, Harding and Evans, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Bulletin 708, November 1952. Effective utilization of organic amendments and slag builds soil fertility, improves plants resistance against disease, and it is important for sustainable agriculture. (2017) reported that the silicate fertilizer amendment significantly decreased denitrification potential and nirS and nirK gene abundance in paddy soils. Besides, the slag fertilizer amendment may induce changes in soil enzyme activities that affect soil nutrient mobilization and microbial dynamics. “Environmental aspects of the utilization of steel industry slags” in Proceedings of VII intenational conference on molten slags, fluxes and salts (Cape Town, South Africa: The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy). doi: 10.1038/s41477-018-0108-y, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Bose, H., and Satyanarayana, T. (2017). Z., and Prezzi, M. (2011). 353, 236–243. (2004). AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 2285-5718, 195-200. 171, 146–156. Ag-Slag has proven its value as an agricultural liming material since the 1920's in all types of crop production and landscaping. Various studies have been focused on applying different Fe sources, in order to reduce the economic burden and to recycle some industrial by-products, such as converter slag (Wallace et al., 1982) (Sikka&Kansal, 1994). Steel slag, however, contains higher concentrations of some nutrients, such as iron, manganese, and silicon, compared to DL. There is an urgent need to evaluate the fate of soil carbon and carbon sequestration potential of slag fertilizer in field conditions. In conclusion seems that converter slag is suitable amendment for acid soils. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04299.x, Gwon, H. S., Khan, M. I., Alam, M. A., Das, S., and Kim, P. J. Mixing materials into the slag to improve water retention. Fe(III) fertilization mitigating net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in paddy rice-wheat rotation systems in China. Likewise, the introduction of plant growth promoting bacteria possessing CA activity in agriculture could have the dual benefit of increased crop yield and CO2 sequestration. Over the past decades, with the rapid growth of industrialization, the higher volume of byproducts (slag) generated from iron/steel production draw attention to the need for its recycling in an increasingly efficient way. 13, pp. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Specifically, we studied the effects during the growing season of different amounts of steel slag amendments on soil nutrient concentrations and C:N, C:P and N:P ratios in rice leaves, stems and doi: 10.3390/agronomy8080135, Wang, W., Sardan, J., Lai, D., Wang, C., Zeng, C., Tong, C., et al. doi: 10.2113/gselements.4.5.333, Piatak, N. M., Parsons, M. B., and Seal, R. R. II (2015). ); Comprehensive utilization of steel slag can lead to enormous economic and social benefits. (2009). Rice is a high Si accumulating plant. It typically involves the dissolution of silicate minerals and subsequent precipitation of stable carbonate minerals (e.g., CaCO3, MgCO3, and FeCO3). Soil salinity and pH were significantly higher for an amendment with both slag and biochar than the control in both the early and late paddies, and pH was significantly higher for a slag amendment in the late paddy. Effective utilization of organic amendments and slag builds soil fertility, improves plants resistance against disease, and it is important for sustainable agriculture. The invention relates to a soil amendment prepared from biogas residue and wormcast as main material and a preparation method of the soil amendment, which belongs to the technical field of recycling of organic fertilizer and agricultural waste resource. Mineral carbonation of CO2 (mineral CO2 sequestration) occurs spontaneously on geological time scales and has a high potential for CO2 sequestration (Oelkers et al., 2008). 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